The state, and with it the king, gained a monopoly on the exercise of violence see box at bottom of article. The state had the sole right make widespread use of violence. The king got his own regular army. Now, soldiers in uniform were ready for war all year round. They were trained, paid wages, given weapons, and were subject to military legislation -- unlike people who were not soldiers.
At that time, the military accounted for a large portion of society. The administration thus required words to describe people who are not in the military. Lawyers and scribes began to use the word civilian which was previously used to describe the opposite of a cleric, namely a perfectly ordinary man who was not in the service of God.
This came about because the soldiers chose to prioritise who they were to fight against. The Spanish general, Ricardos Carillo, wrote to the nearest French general when he was on his way into France with his army in during the French Revolution However, it was not until after World War II that the concept was written into international law. According to Professor Lind, this was done on the background of the atrocities which had taken place on the Eastern front and in China during the world war.
Also of great importance is that fact that the individual has assumed greater significance in purely political terms.
Specifically, ordinary people get more and more political power. They get most power in democratic societies, but also under dictatorships and in pseudo-democracies. He believes that the civilian concept has greater significance today than ever before.
He explains that the West were not alone in believing that people who did not carry weapons should be spared. In addition to that he believes it is important to point out that thanks to international law, the civilian concept has spread to the entire world, where it has been incorporated into local culture. The concepts of international law are thus no longer the inheritance of the West, but are also used and shaped by cultures in the Third World.
Read the original story in Danish on Videnskab. Civilians at War. Only a few were identified in the post-war years, but now names and graves are being matched. Countries go to war against their neighbours just to be on the safe side.
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A study of sexual violence committed during the Bosnian War reveals the mechanisms behind this behaviour. In DR Congo, 30 to 40 percent of the child soldiers are girls. They experience more sexual abuse and stigmatisation and they receive less help and attention from the international community. This policy details our commitment to protecting the privacy of our users and contributors who visit ScienceNordic.
A particular type of wax that accumulates on the surface of plant root cells is vital for their nutrient balance, new study shows. The results truly challenge the way we think about plant growth and plant root adaptations. Computing society needs to promote more gender equity and better ways at working together. We present our experiences on trying to do so.
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Today CO2 is removed from industry by using molecules called amines, which react with CO2. DTU has developed a new method using molecules from the human blood to remove CO2. Human Rights Watch received documentation on dozens of similar cases.
According to medical records, out of war wounded patients admitted to Connaught hospital from April 1 though June 20, approximately one-quarter were children. Women and girls are the primary targets of widespread rape, sexual slavery, and other forms of sexual violence.
Furthermore, no comprehensive medical statistics have been compiled on rape-related injuries or on pregnancies as a result of rape. Those who have witnessed, or endured and survived these and other atrocities are suffering enormous psychological trauma. Often, the rapes occur in front of family members and others, and in some cases relatives are forced to rape their sisters, mothers or daughters.
A soldier bayoneted an old man to death. In some villages, after the people were rounded up, they were stripped naked and ordered to "use their women;" men were ordered to "use" their sister. Bragg as son Staff Sgt. As the grenade exploded, he and Holmes opened fire, shooting the boy repeatedly at close range with an M4 carbine and a machine gun. The Army is likely to suffer a disproportionate share of the cuts, and most of the cuts will be aimed at personnel rather than at procurement or operations and maintenance. They joined , Sierra Leoneans already in Guinea as of June The insurgents, for their part, preferred to stay hidden from American troops, striking from a distance with IEDs.
Rape is also used as an immediate punishment for refusing to follow instructions or in retaliation for the acts of others held in captivity. These crimes, and other forms of sexual violence, are explicitly and implicitly condemned under international humanitarian law. The Geneva Conventions of August 12, and the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions prohibit rape in both international and internal conflicts.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child further protects children from "all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. Murder or mutilation frequently follows these rapes.
In light of the gruesome nature of the atrocities committed against them, these women seem to be targeted because of their status as pregnant women. Witnesses report having seen the mutilated bodies of pregnant women whose fetuses had been cut out of their wombs or who died of gunshot wounds to the abdomen.
Some pregnant women are also forced into labor due to the extreme physical hardship of having to flee their homes, and at times die in flight due to complications in childbirth. Throughout the world, sexual violence is routinely directed against women and girls during situations of armed conflict as a weapon to terrorize a community and to achieve a political end.
The humiliation, terror and pain inflicted by the rapist is meant to harm not only the individual victim but also to strip the humanity from the larger group of which she is a part. The rape of one person can be translated into an assault upon the community through the emphasis placed in every culture on women's sexual virtue; the shame of the rape humiliates the family and all those associated with the survivor.
The following are some of the testimonies of Sierra Leonean women who survived or witnessed sexual violence, and of some of the service providers and others who witnessed the abuse or assisted them once they reached refugee camps in Guinea and hospitals in Sierra Leone. Ruth B. She ultimately escaped and made her way to Guinea. When Ruth described her one-month ordeal in captivity, she was visibly traumatized, in poor health and still bore scars on her back and legs.
The back of her ankles had been sliced just below the Achilles tendon to prevent her from escaping:. They took three of my children and killed my husband. The rest of us ran away. But we were captured by the junta,  and they took the women away to carry their loads. I was with them one month. They held us in a house. One day while we were there and they were away, another group came from Gongo and asked us what our mission was. We told them we were from Gandorhun, and they beat us. They beat us severely. They stomped on my stomach, and the next day, I was bleeding from my vagina as if I had had an operation.
Now, I have a serious backache. Later the two groups came together, and the second group told the first group that we were family members of the Kamajors. They used me for sex, and they cut my heels with their bayonets so I wouldn't run or walk off. But I escaped into the bush even though I was wounded I didn't know who captured me. Some had uniforms and machetes, and some wore ordinary clothes, like jeans, and had guns.
There were lots of nicknames; one of them was called "Blood.
I could tell from their language. Finda T. She told Human Rights Watch how her family had been killed and how she had been raped by rebel soldiers:. The rebels caught us in the bush after my family and I had fled one Saturday in February. They killed my brother immediately, and they took my two children. One of them raped me. He used me as his wife, and another one beat me with a gun.
They made me and others carry their loads.
They told us to take their bags of rice back to Koidu town. They seriously used us. In Koidu, they took our clothes and freed us. I lived in the bush for two months using leaves to cover myself. Eventually, I found some people who showed me the way to Guinea. A child gave me her clothes, and I have only one dress now.
In April, medical staff in Connaught Hospital, Freetown reported that they were witnessing an alarming number of patients suffering mutilations. A number of the female patients they interviewed were raped and had foreign objects inserted in their vaginas.
Doctors reported:. In some villages, after the people were rounded up, they were stripped naked and ordered to "use their women;" men were ordered to "use" their sister. When men refused to do so, their arm was amputated, and the women were raped by the attackers.